The matching type question in IELTS academic reading is given to test the examinees skills in recognizing opinions or theories.
Examinees choose from the given options like names and pair them with something associated with the names like statements, inventions/discoveries or theories. There are instances when choices will be used more than once, or in some cases won't be used at all.
Looking at the title or sub-title carefully and then skimming would help.
Skimming is really important here because it gives you a quick glance of what the passage is all about.
After doing these, read the first option or question, and then scan the passage to look for the part that suggest the answer.
Scanning is a technique in reading used to find a specific word or a phrase. It is like looking up a word in a dictionary.
After these, read the choices to find the letter that gives the answer. Your answer should be written on the answer sheet.
It is easier to pair names or dates because they can easily be identified in the passage than statements or events.